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Impact of aerobic training on plasma leptin and pulmonary functions in obese adolescents

Aim: The present study aimed to detect and relate alteration in reaction of plasma leptin and pulmonary functions (forced vital capacity “FVC” and forced

expiratory volume in the first second “FEV1”) in obese adolescent schoolboys and schoolgirls to aerobic training. Material and Method: Sixty obese secondary

school students with body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or greater, with age range of 15 to 18 years participated in this study. Participants were allocated

into two equal groups based on their gender: 30 schoolgirls (Group A) and 30 schoolboys (Group B). All subjects in both groups practiced moderate-intensity

aerobic training program using a stationary cycle ergometer for a period of 4 months 5 days a week. Plasma leptin levels and pulmonary functions (FVC and

FEV1) were measured in all students’ before and after the program started. Participants were chosen from thirteen Secondary Schools, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

They received training program at Pediatric Out-Patient Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz Hospitals. The study was conducted between June 2015 and May 2016. Results:

After 4 months of aerobic exercise program, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in leptin and significant improvement in pulmonary functions in both

groups. Moreover, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in both groups in leptin levels with favor to girls group. In contrast, there was a significant

difference (p<0.05) in both groups in pulmonary functions with favor to boys group. Discussion: Following aerobic exercise program, pulmonary functions

were improved in obese adolescent schoolboys more than in obese adolescent schoolgirls. In contrast, serum leptin hormone values were improved in obese

adolescent schoolgirls more than in schoolboys.

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The results of arthroscopic treatment for talus osteochondral lesions

Aim: Our aim is to share the mid-term results of debritment and marrow bone stimulation proccess in patients with talus OCD who did not respond to the

conservative treatment. Material and Method: The patients with talus osteochondritis dissecans weretreated by arthroscopic debridement; and bone marrow

stimulation was performed with K- wire. Twenty-sixof them formed the primary and 15 of them formed the revision group. Clinical assessment included the

Ogilvie-Harris score and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score. The defects were classified according to the system of

Berndt and Harty. The lesion side, symptom time, trauma history, age-related complication, Ogilvie-Harris and AOFAS scores, follow-up period, and well-being

condition of the groups were compared. Results: A total of 41 patients, 25 males and 16 females, with a mean age of 34.3 years (range 19-62), were included

in the present study. Follow-up ranged from 23-73 month (mean 34,3). The individual analysis results showed that the pre-operative AOFAS scores were significantly

different between the primary and the revision groups, while post-operative scores were not significantly different between the primary and therevision

groups. For the whole group, the AOFAS skore was excellent in 9 patients, good in 25, fair in 6 and poor in one. In the primary group the AOFAS scores were

good in 14 (54%), fair in four (15) and excellent in eight (31) patients, while in the revision group they were good in eleven (73%), fair in two (13%) and poor

in one (7%) patient. The combined good and excellent scores were 85% for the primary group and 80% for the revision group. The mean AOFAS AHS score at

the 12th month was 88.2 in the primary group and 82.8 in the revision group. Discussion: Arthroscopic curettage and bone marrow stimulating process is a

viable method and recommended for both primary and revision treatment of an osteochonditis dissecans of the talus.

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RUNX genes expressions in breast cancer and fibroadenoma

Aim: Many genes have been identified to control cell proliferation in human such as RUNX gene family. Mutations in these genes have been shown to be responsible

for various cancer developments. Our aim in this study is to investigate RUNX gene family expressions in breast cancer and breast fibroadenomas.

Material and Method: All consecutive patients whose histopathological examination resulted in breast cancer, fibroadenoma, or normal breast tissue between

the years 2012 and 2014 were included in the study. Total RNA from each sample was isolated with genomic RNA extraction sample and gene expressions of

RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3 were measured with real- time polymerase chain reaction. Gene expressions and patients’ characteristics were evaluated among

histopathological groups. Results: According to statistical analysis, RUNX1 and RUNX2 expressions were upregulated in fibroadenoma patients while only

RUNX2 expression was found to be upregulated in breast cancer patients. RUNX1 was upregulated in patients with p53 mutation, whereas RUNX2 was upregulated

in patients without p53 mutation. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first study that evaluates RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3 gene

expressions in both benign and malignant breast disease. RUNX2 gene was significantly upregulated in patients with both breast cancer and fibroadenoma

in our study. In contrast, however, upregulated, RUNX1 and RUNX3 gene upregulations in the breast cancer and fibroadenoma patients were not statistically

significant. In our study, RUNX2 may be a good prognostic factor in contrast to its role in osteosarcoma or bone metastasis in breast and prostate cancer.

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