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Rare complications of Salmonella

Although non-typhoidal salmonellosis presents with gastroenteritis and bacteremia, there are also some rare complications. In this study, we present the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of three patients who presented to our clinic with rare complications. Salmonella gastroenteritis can be deadly owing to complications as well as being a self-limiting infection. It should therefore be taken into account in patients with risk variables, as a differential diagnosis. In the event of suspicion, cultures should be acquired. 

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Effect of deep neck flexor strengthening on forward head posture: A systemic review and meta-analyses

Aim: This study aimed to systematically review and summarize the best evidence of the efficiency of deep neck flexor (DNF) strengthening for forward head posture (FHP).

Material and Methods: A literature search from January 2000 to 2020 was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library,Science Direct, and PEDro by two authors who independently selected studies. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The primary outcomes were pain, disability, and craniovertebral angle (CVA),and the secondary outcomes were forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second.

Results: A total of 7 randomized controlled trials of low-to-moderate quality evidence that compared the short-term effect of DNF strengthening on pain, disability, CVA, and respiratory function with that of another treatment; 4 studies were enrolled in the meta-analyses. In 3 studies that investigated the effect of DNF strengthening on the cervicovertebral angle, the overall effect was statistically insignificant in patients with FHP (mean difference [MD], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], −2.58 to 3.04; P=0.23).In 2 studies that examined the effect of DNF strengthening on pain, the overall effect was statistically insignificant (MD, −0.07; 95% CI, −1.77 to 1.62; P=0.87).

Discussion: The findings of this review suggest that the evidence of DNF strengthening in FHP is not sufficient.

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Serial casting for equinus deformity in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review

Aim: The primary cause of gait deformity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is equinus foot. Children with equinus foot typically receive physiotherapy as part of their care, as serial casting. In this study, we aimed to systematically examine the impact of serial casting procedure in children with CP with equinus deformity.

Material and Methods: Articles were identified from 2008 to 2019 by literature searches using Medline (MEDLINE), physiotherapy evidence base (PEDro), and Cochrane database. Randomized trials focused on CP children with equinus deformity were included. Data were extracted from the included studies and methodological quality of these data was evaluated using the PEDro scale. The modified Sackett scale was used to evaluate the level of evidence of each intervention.

Results: Four trials with good quality methodology were identified with good quality methodology. It was examined whether studies regarding intervention techniques were heterogeneous or not. Findings were analyzed in qualitative terms.This review revealed moderate evidence in three articles about the effectiveness of serial casting application and the ineffectiveness in one article, in addition to traditional physiotherapy programs. Meta-analysis was applied for homogeneous studies and it showed that serial casting could be used as a method to improve deformity of the equinus.

Discussion: The current systematic review analyzed four randomized controlled trials, applying strict inclusion selection criteria. The present evidence supports the use of serial casting for improving equinus deformity and modulates spasticity in children with CP and it is considered a moderate evidence of the efficacy of serial casting application.Although the findings of this review support the effectiveness of serial casing application in CP children with equinus deformity, additional randomized control trials with a larger sample size are still required to confirm the present evidence.

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