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Carbamazepine induces oxidative stress on rats’ microvascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier

Aim: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used anticonvulsant. Its effect on the blood-brain barrier(BBB) is poorly understood. Hence the current study had investigated the effect of CBZ on the isolated cultured microvascular epithelial cells of albino rats. Oxidative stress was investigated as the underlying mechanism of its cytotoxicity. Material and Method: Albino rats’ microvascular endothelial cells (rMVECs) were isolated. CBZ induced cytotoxicity was evaluated by Alamar blue (AB) assay using concentrations range 1-1000µM. Oxidative stress markers as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD), reduced glutathione(GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated 24 hours after exposure to CBZ estimated IC50 and 50 µM. Also, the protective effect of anti-oxidation reduced GSH was studied. Results: AB assay showed that CBZ decreased the viability of the cells in relation to their concentrations and exposure durations. CBZ’s 24 hours estimated IC50s was about 130µM. CBZ increased TBARS in the both 130 and 50 µM concentrations (p = 0.0009). CBZ significantly decreased SOD, catalase, and GSH levels in its estimated IC50s, while in the lower concentration (50 µM) only CBZ showed a significant effect on reduced GSH(p=0.003). Also, CBZ increased significantly (p=0.0018) ROS with both tested concentrations. Addition of reduced GSH significantly decreased the cytotoxic effect of CBZ in its estimated IC50s (p<0.0001) and in the concentration of 50 µM (p=0.0005). Discussion: CBZ can be cytotoxic to the BBB cells with disruption of its integrity which may expose the nervous system to various harmful circulating molecules. Also, co-administration of antioxidants with CBZ may have a protective role.

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Six Days of a Neonatologist With a Multiple Antiarrhythmics-Resistant Permanent Junctional Reciprocal Tachcardia Case

Paroxysmal Junctional Reciprocating Tachycardia (PJRT) is an incessant Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmia (SVT), which can potentially cause tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy if not controlled

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The incidence of neonatal developmental dysplasia of the hip in Arar, Saudi Arabia

Aim: In this study, it was aimedto investigate the incidence and risk factors of neonatal hip joint Developmental Dysplasia in Arar City. Material and Method: Hospital records of all newborns in both Arar Central Hospital and Prince Abdulaziz bin Musaad Hospital in Arar city from January 2013 to the end of December 2013 were reviewed with their follow-up files till December 2015. Records include a detailed history, careful physical examination, results of the laboratory and radiological investigations. Results: The records of 2582 newborns were reviewed. The incidence of DDH was estimated to be 6.19/1000 live births. Ten cases (62.5 %) were females with estimated male to female ratio equal to 1:2.6. Spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred in 11 cases (68.75%), a caesarean section in 5 cases (31.25%). Limping and waddling gait was the most common finding in 10 cases (62.5%). DDH was significantly associated with primiparity, low birth weight, prematurity and positive family history of DDH (p-values=0.0009, 0.014, 0.038, and 0.0006 respectively). Discussion: Screening of DDH in Arar City of Northern Border province of Saudi Arabia was estimated to be 6.19/ 1000 live births. Awareness programs, routine examination of the neonatal hip joint with the hip ultrasound and pelvis plain x-ray in babies with risk factors for DDH are strongly recommended.

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