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Nighttime eating syndrome and its relationship with impulsivity in major depressive disorder

Aim: This study aims to investigate the frequency, clinical features, and role of Nighttime Eating Syndrome (NES) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Material and Methods: Patients experiencing depression who applied to the psychiatry outpatient clinic were included in this study. All participants completed structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS).

Results: A total of 142 patients, consisting of 112 (78.9%) women and 30 men (21.1%), between ages 18-64 years were included in the study. Among patients with MDD, NES prevalence was 26.1%. No statistically significant correlation was found between NEDQ score and age, BMI, or disease onset age (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between NEDQ scores and BDI (r: 0.448, p<0.001), BAI (r: 0.351, p<0.001), BIS-total (r: 0.473, p<0.001), BIS-Attention (r: 0.351, p <0.001), BIS-Motor (r: 0.351, p<0.001) and BIS-Nonplanning (r: 0.451, p <0.001) scores. The number of smokers was statistically significantly higher among patients with NEDQ>30 compared to those with NEDQ<30 (p<0.001). BDI (p=0.027), BIS-Total (p<0.001), BIS-Attention (p=0.013), BIS-Motor (p=0.002), and BIS-Nonplanning scores were significantly higher (p<0.001) among patients with NEDQ>30 compared to patients with NEDQ<30. 

Discussion: NES is commonly encountered in psychiatric outpatient clinics and is associated with major depression, impulse control disorder, and nicotine addiction. In addition, it could be said that impulsivity is more associated with NES than depression. 

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The new normal dentistry in the COVID-19 pandemic world

In December 2019, a new coronavirus disease mostly with the symptoms of pneumonia cropped out in Wuhan, China. The COVID-19 outbreak has spread out worldwide and it has created huge uncertainty. COVID-19 was announced by the World Health Organization as a pandemic on March 11, 2020, with infection cases occurring in 185 countries all over the world. There is no clear information about how long this pandemic will continue whether its different types will be seen, or whether it will reappear in the future. Dentists are in close contact with patients’ blood, aerosol, droplet, and saliva during dental procedures. Therefore, dentists are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19. During dental procedures, COVID-19 can be transmitted through inhalation of aerosols from an infected person or through contact with mucous membranes, oral fluids, contaminated instruments, and surfaces. The aim of this article is to collect all information about the COVID-19 outbreak that dentists should be aware of when they perform the dental practice.

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Assessment of nutritional status and malnutrition risk with different methods in surgical patients

Aim: Malnourished surgical patient morbidity and mortality are increased. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and improve the malnutrition status of these patients in the preoperative period.

Material and Methods: Age, gender, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI) degrees, albumin, and total protein levels were determined in the first 24 hours of admission of all cases. Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) was performed for the malnutrition situation assessment.

Results: One hundred twenty patients were examined. The BMI scores were as follows: 5.8% of the cases were in the ≤ 18.5  group, 36.7% of the cases were in the 18.6-24.9 group, 45% of them were in 25-29.9 group, and 12.5% of them were in the  ≥ 30 group. Albumin levels showed a significant difference according to the BMI levels (p<0.05). Total protein levels showed significant difference according to the NRI levels (p <0.05) and, total protein levels in patients with normal levels of NRI were much higher compared to the NRI severe cases  (p = 0,022, p <0.05). Albumin levels were significantly different according to the NRI levels (p <0.05) and, the albumin levels at patients with normal levels of NRI were higher against the dangerous levels of NRI cases (p = 0,045, p <0.05).Discussion: If malnourished patients could be well planned, their recovery time would be shorter. By simple measures, we were able to obtain precious results about the patient’s health status.

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